Mars, the planet closest to earth about 55 million kilometers away, is considered the most likely candidate for extraterrestrial life in the solar system. People have long dreamed of this place, and even tesla CEO musk, known as the real-life "iron man," said he would die on Mars. SpaceX rockets with ambitious plans to colonize Mars have also told the public that his dream is not empty talk.
In July 2018, science, the world's leading science magazine, made a big announcement: the Mars Express spacecraft from the European space agency (esa) discovered a 20,000-meter diameter area of groundwater enrichment, 1,500 meters below the planet's polar cap at the South Pole, which is likely to be a huge lake.
You know what? The discovery of an underground lake on Mars is a significant milestone in the history of human exploration of Mars. The discovery ends years of debate over the existence of liquid water at the bottom of Mars' polar ice sheet, a finding first proposed more than 30 years ago.
On Mars, there is water and air, the source of life
Water is the source of life, and if there were lakes on Mars that would provide the basis for life. Scientists have found traces of ancient life in every corner of the earth. From the fossils of extinct creatures to various kinds of birds and animals at present, from the craters at the bottom of the ocean to the endless glaciers, it tells us that there is infinite possibility of life. Therefore, the underground lakes on Mars also have the possibility of breeding life.
Air, too, is the basis of life. Mars' poles are covered with solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), underground lakes are not frozen, and high electrical conductivity is a side effect of the presence of salts in the water.
Perchlorates are not uncommon on Mars, according to previous Mars Express data. The lake may have dissolved large amounts of perchlorates, and we know that heating potassium chlorate produces oxygen. In addition, water can electrolyze hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used for breathing. Look at the craters at the bottom of our earth's oceans. They also have high temperatures, almost no oxygen, but life is still found. Thus, water and air are of great significance to the future of Mars and offer the possibility of human migration to Mars.
On earth, communication links are as important as water and air
The constant search for water and air on Mars reflects the determination of human beings to explore space and try to connect with the universe. On earth, water and air have given birth to a planet full of vitality. Mankind has lived and multiplied and formed a modern civilized society. After many industrial revolutions, productivity and living standards have reached new heights. However, we also find that history is always strikingly similar. Human beings are never satisfied with the status quo and are constantly seeking to connect with the world and everything. The breakthrough and evolution of communication technology may be the best proof.
Bell invented the world's first telephone in 1875 and conducted the first long-distance telephone experiment between Boston and New York 300 kilometers apart. In 1966, Mr. Gao kun put forward the idea of the application of optical fiber in communication, which gave birth to transocean telephone and optical fiber Internet access. With the advent of overseas phone calls, overseas students can send their parents Spring Festival greetings by long-distance phone on time. The advent of fiber optic Internet makes it easy for us in Asia to keep abreast of the New York stock market on the other side of the ocean. From the telephone connection between cities, countries and the Internet, which has a high capacity of information, communication technology has been breaking through the time and space limitations, and the connection between people and the world has become more efficient. People's communication and lifestyle, as well as social operation, have also changed.
Before the 21st century, the focus of communication was fixed network, but after entering the new century, the progress of mobile communication technology has greatly improved the connection efficiency and truly crossed the distance between time and space. The first generation of mobile communication system 1G is only voice service. At this time, the communication connection stays on voice, but it lays a foundation for future development. In the era of 2G, low-speed data service was added, and the maximum network speed was 384kbit/s. At this time, you can send short messages to your friends and relatives anytime and anywhere. In the 3G era, the highest network speed reached 21Mbit/s, and video was further introduced to communicate with friends far away "face to face". 4G network speed can be as high as gigabit LTE (over 1Gbps/s).
Communication revolution has penetrated into all aspects of life, such as mobile live broadcasting, mobile game, mobile payment, bicycle sharing, take-out, etc., live broadcasting the first step of children's learning to walk for relatives around through 4G network. With the popularization of 4G, we are increasingly aware and aware that the continuous improvement of communication network speed may bring about earth-shaking changes.
Communication technology has been continuously changing people's communication and lifestyle through continuous evolution over the past decades, which to some extent promotes the development of human civilization on earth. Boldly envisage a future in which communications technology could also influence the creation of civilizations on another planet. Although humans have sent probes to Mars for many times and successfully landed on it, the closest distance to Mars is about 55 million kilometers from the earth, which leads to high transportation costs and time costs. Currently, no probe can return samples from the surface of Mars to the earth, so communication becomes the only link between Mars and the earth. Musk, who plans to land on Mars in 2025, has put forward the bold idea of immigrating to Mars. The realization of this idea requires not only the SpaceX rocket with outstanding carrying capacity, but also more advanced and reliable communication technology support to achieve stable connection with the earth.
Back to earth, at this time, mankind is about to usher in the fifth generation of mobile communication network, and more challenges, breakthroughs and innovations are coming.
Compared with 4G networks, the upcoming 5G will be at least 10 times as fast as 4G and 100 times as fast as 4G. The number of supported devices will be at least 100 billion. The download speed will be as high as 10GB per second. In the era of 5G, the fifth generation of communication technology will provide possibilities for the interconnection of all things. In the era of 4G, many seemingly unrelated devices and carriers will be connected to the Internet, jointly promoting a more efficient society of interconnection of all things, including automobiles, industrial Internet of things and enterprise computing. 5G, known as the "fourth industrial revolution", is coming.
In the era of 5G, what is the society where everything is connected? The international telecommunication union (itu) divides 5G into three major application scenarios, namely, enhanced mobile broadband eMBB, large-connected Internet of things (iot) mMTC and low-delay and high-reliability communication uRLLC.
Enhanced mobile broadband eMBB
Today's top sports events occasionally see 5G experimental networks deploying enhanced mobile broadband eMBB, from live vehicles to secure communications, to panoramic broadcasts, and cameras that capture athletes' movements from multiple locations. In the near future, they will all be connected more intelligently through 5G networks and used in more competitions. Inside the stadium, people can also experience VR virtual reality. However, a truly invasive VR experience must rely on the characteristics of 5G network with high speed and low delay.
Large-scale Internet of things
5G network will realize large-scale Internet of things, and people and devices, devices and devices will interact with each other more efficiently. For example, in the future, farms will adopt the concept of precision irrigation to realize data, network and intelligent monitoring of the growth process of crops at each stage and the status quo of the environment, and feedback the data to farmers in real time. Through the calculation and analysis of the data, thousands of plants realize the personalized irrigation method to obtain the optimal growth environment.
Communication with high reliability and low delay
The low-latency and high reliability features of 5G network will be fully reflected in the fields requiring extremely high communication connection, such as automatic driving and telemedicine. Take the medical field as an example, in the future, 5G network will further guarantee the operation of remote surgery, doctors can operate for patients in remote remote manipulator, 5G network will ensure the timely transmission and synchronization of surgical operation instructions, for patients to seize every second, but also make up for the uneven medical level in remote areas.
Water and air are necessary for human survival, so we see hope for life on Mars. After three industrial revolutions and continuous technological breakthroughs and innovations in the field of communication, the way people connect with each other and the world has been evolving, and the earth has become more and more vibrant. In the near future, 5G networks will trigger the "fourth industrial revolution", and communication and connectivity will become as indispensable as water and air, pushing human civilization to the next level. In 2019, 5G commercialization is just around the corner, and we will have the honor to witness the change of the next era, and a new chapter of civilization will be opened in a world where everything is interconnected.